Revisions – Writing tips

This activity offers opportunity to revise various elements relevant to writing – link words, tenses, syntax in indirect speech, vocabulary. The basis for the exercise is an adapted extract from an academic article (references below). The same text is used four different times. I propose keys for each of them.


 

Instructions : read the following text and answer the corresponding questions.

1. Fill the gaps with adapted link words – each one can only be used once.

2. Rewrite the same text in indirect speech (as if you were summarizing it to a friend). Start with “Madsen and Christensen explain that, over the past decades, …” and introduce each sentence with a different verb (“they ask / they write….”). Pay attention to word order!

3. Rewrite the same text shifting it further in the past. Start with “Over the previous decades, scholars had debated what factors drove globalization.” Make all the required transformations (tenses, indications of time, etc)

4. Rewrite the same text adding one adverb to each clause, and one adjective to each noun. For instance, the beginning of the first sentence could go “Over the past two decades, international scholars have intensively debated…” Each adjective or adverb can only be used once.

Over the past decades, scholars have debated what factors drive globalization. Who is driving globalization is, …………………….., much less studied, ………………………… it is key to understand how the world works. There seems to be a list of actors offering possible answers to this question. Are they global institutions, communities of experts, networks of activists, powerful individuals?

Before turning to this question, we will ………………………. first briefly unpack the notion of global actors. Two key findings of scholarship can clarify this.

………………………………., it is agreed that globalization has contributed to the development of new forms of authority exercised by new global actors. ………………………………………, the traditional view of authority as represented by the state cannot be applied to the world as a whole.

…………………………………, some research has demonstrated that approaching the globalized world as an international space made of individual states is not satisfactory.

Bearing these two observations in mind, in what follows, we outline some of the most important elements about global actors. ……………………………………, explaining who drives globalization is key…………………………….. to the study of politics, ……………………………… to understand the role of economics in today’s globalizing world. This article will ………………………………………….. equip the reader with tools for the study of globalization.

Adapted from Madsen, Mikael Rask, and Mikkel Jarle Christensen. “Global Actors: Networks, Elites, and Institutions.” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. 2016. Oxford University Press.


 

Keys:

1. Link words:

Over the past decades, scholars have debated what factors drive globalization. Who is driving globalization is, on the contrary / conversely / however, much less studied, whereas / but / although it is key to understand how the world works. There seems to be a list of actors offering possible answers to this question. Are they global institutions, communities of experts, networks of activists, powerful individuals?

Before turning to this question, we will however / nevertheless first briefly unpack the notion of global actors. Two key findings of scholarship can clarify this.

First of all / To begin with / Firstly, it is agreed that globalization has contributed to the development of new forms of authority exercised by new global actors. In fact / Indeed / Actually / As a matter of fact / In other words, the traditional view of authority as represented by the state cannot be applied to the world as a whole.

Secondly, some research has demonstrated that approaching the globalized world as an international space made of individual states is not satisfactory.

Bearing these two observations in mind, in what follows, we outline some of the most important elements about global actors. In fact / Indeed / Actually / As a matter of fact, explaining who drives globalization is key not only to the study of politics, but also to understand the role of economics in today’s globalizing world. This article will thus / therefore / then / consequently equip the reader with tools for the study of globalization.

2. Indirect speech

Madsen and Christensen explain that, over the past decades, scholars have debated what factors drive globalization. They argue that who is driving globalization is much less studied although it is a key factor to understand how the world works. They write that there seems to be a list of factors offering possible answers to this question. The two authors wonder if these are global institutions, communities of experts, networks of activists or powerful individuals. / The two authors are wonder what extent it is true.

3. Tenses

Over the previous decades, scholars had debated what factors drove globalization. Who was driving globalization was, however, much less studied, although it was key to understand how the world worked. There seemed to be a list of actors offering possible answers to this question. Were they global institutions, communities of experts, networks of activists, powerful individuals?

Before turning to this question, we would nevertheless first briefly unpack the notion of global actors. Two key findings of scholarship could clarify this.

Firstly, it was agreed that globalization had contributed to the development of new forms of authority exercised by new global actors. In other words, the traditional view of authority as represented by the state couldn’t / could not be applied to the world as a whole.

Secondly, some research had demonstrated that approaching the globalized world as an international space made of individual states was not satisfactory.

Bearing these two observations in mind, in what followed, we outlined some of the most important elements about global actors. As a matter of fact, explaining who drove globalization was key not only to the study of politics, but also to understand the role of economics in those days globalizing world. This article would therefore equip the reader with tools for the study of globalization

4. Vocabulary: adjectives and adverbs

Over the past two decades, international scholars have intensely debated what important factors directly drive inevitable globalization. Who is currently driving predominant globalization is, however, much less interestingly / intensely studied, although it is probably key to understand how the beautiful / current / contemporary world really works. There eventually seems to be a big list of diverse actors mainly offering possible valid answers to this new question. Are they presently global political / economic institutions, large communities of well-known / renown experts, powerful networks of young / committed / dedicated activists, powerful rich / wealthy individuals?

 

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